PUBLICATIONS BY OTHER AUTHORS

Andrea Rossi

E-CAT SK AND LONG-RANGE PARTICLE INTERACTIONS (pdf)

The technology of Andrea Rossi LENR Energy Catalyzer (E-Cat) poses a serious and interesting challenge to the conceptual foundations of modern physics. In this article some theoretical frameworks that explore the possible formation of dense exotic electron clusters in E-Cat are presented.

Some considerations on the probable role of Casimir, Aharonov-Bohm, and vacuum polarization effects in the formation of such structures are proposed. Dense electron clusters are introduced as a probable precursor for the formation of proton-electron aggregates at pico-metric scale, stressing the importance of evaluating the plausibility of special electron-nucleon interactions. An observed isotopic dependence of a particular spectral line in the visible range of E-Cat plasma spectrum seems to confirm the presence of a specific proton-electron interaction at electron Compton wavelength scale.

Lutz Jaitner

THE PHYSICS OF CONDENSED PLASMOIDS (CPs) AND LOW-ENERGY NUCLEAR REACTIONS (LENR), 2015 - 2019 

http://condensed-plasmoids.com/condensed_plasmoids_lenr.pdf

 

LENR research was puzzled for a long time by the basic questions. To answer them, the author has built a quantum-mechanical model of the nuclear active environment in LENR.

This environment is an ultra-dense plasmoid, i.e. a “condensed plasmoid”. The computed properties of CPs are so exotic, that CPs qualify as a previously unknown aggregation state of matter.

This document is first in describing the properties of CPs, the microscopic evidence of CPs in LENR experiments, how the properties of CPs help explaining a wealth of remarkable findings in LENR experiments, examples of nuclear reaction routes possibly enabled by CPs, the quantum-mechanical model of CPs, the computational results derived from this model, verifiable predictions derived from the theory on CPs and a technology assessment on potential dangers of LENR.

G. A. Mesyats

ECTONS (MESYATS G.A.)

The two latest decade of ХХ century have been marked by the discovery of like charges’ clusters with high density and by development of technologies for their creation. For the first time the autonomous clusters of charges have been discovered by American researcher Ken Shoulders at the pointed cathode in vacuum and in gas of low pressure. They have been named as “Electrum Validum” (EV) and applied to various technologies of creation of microscopic auto electronic cathodes, in processing of metal surfaces and in search of low-energy class of cluster’s nuclear reactions.

Synchronous, the similar clusters in charges’ flows, being appeared near uneven cathode at explosive thermionic emission have been discovered by Russian scientists under the guidance of academician G.A. Mesyats. The fast density of heat energy at cathode’s micro asperities has resulted in explosions of electrons’ flow, being escaped from asperity. These explosions, appeared in overheating area of cathode surface, are like to explosions, ejecting warmed-up material from volcano crater. The separately formed “volcano micro explosions” and overheating area have been named as “ectons” (the ecton is electron avalanche from metal). The estimations, followed from experiments, show that ectons eject by bounded portions (clusters), where the quantity of electrons is situated in the range, observed by K. Shoulders.

G. A. Mesyats

GOOGLE SCHOLAR CITATIONS (partly in Russian)

CHARGE CLUSTERS AND PLASMOIDS, LONG-LIVING LUMENOUS OBJECTS IN LIQUID AND ATMOSPHERE

The physical properties of high-voltage discharge of capacitor at conducting liquid have been investigated in the works. At the expense of axial symmetry of electrodes, remote in water, electrical surface discharge with current’s radial component at the liquid-air boundary is succeeded in creation of electrical surface discharge with current’s radial component at the liquid-air boundary. The electrons’ cluster, holding the current near the surface of liquid, is heated more in areas with the major current density. At the moment of discharge completion the heated film of charges floats more quickly near the axis of system than at system’s periphery. By virtue of this the thin luminous film of charges, like to the ball lightning by form, is created. The film comes up and forms thin-wall spherical cluster of electrons with thickness of 0,5 mm, charge value of 10 nano-coulomb, temperature of 103 К, de-excitation time of 0,5 sec and radius by order of 5 cm.

A. I. Egorov, S. I. Stepanov, G. D. Shabanov

DEMONSTRATION OF BALL LIGHTNING LABORATORY (in Russian)

Progress in Physical Science, 2004. V. 174. № 1, pp. 107-109

G.D.Shabanov, B.Yu. Sokolovskiy

MACROSCOPIC CHARGE SEPARATION IMPULSE ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE (in Russian)

Physics of Plasma. 2005. V. 31. №6. pp. 560-566

The experiments on flowing of high-power pulse of current in distilled water have been executed in the works. The class of long-living luminous objects (LLO), which temperature is in the range of 102 to 103 К, has been discovered. The estimations of density, heat diffusivity, glow power and density of particles in LLO have been made. The values obtained contradict to known data about oxygen, hydrogen and oxy-hydrogen associations. The hypothesis that LLO discovered is aerogel has been suggested. It explains the most of experimental and rated data about properties of luminous objects. However, the question of nature of aerogel’s substance remains an open.

P.I. Golubnichiy , Yu.M. Krutov , S.A. Kamenev, A.N. Cymbalyuk, A.V. Alborov, A.N. Nadobnyh

EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF DYNAMICS OF FORMATION OF LONG-LIVING LUMINOUS OBJECTS IN CONDITIONS, CLOSE TO ORIGINATION OF BALL LIGHTNING IN NATURE (observation)   (in Russian)

THEORETICAL WORKS ON CHARGE CLUSTERS

В работах ниже исследованы физические свойства высоковольтного разряда конденсатора на проводящую жидкость. За счёт осевой симметрии электродов, удалённых в воде, удаётся создавать электрический поверхностный разряд с радиальной компонентой тока на границе раздела жидкость-воздух. Кластер электронов, удерживающий ток у поверхности жидкости, нагревается сильнее в областях с большей плотностью тока. В момент окончания разряда нагретая плёнка зарядов всплывает быстрее у оси системы, чем у её периферии. За счёт этого образуется тонкая светящаяся плёнка зарядов, по форме похожая на шаровую молнию. Плёнка всплывает вверх и формирует тонкостенный сферический кластер электронов толщиной 0,5 мм с величиной заряда порядка 10 нКл, температурой 103 К, временем высвечивания 0,5 с и радиусом порядка 5 см.

ОСЦИЛЛИРУЮЩИЙ КЛАСТЕР ГАЙДУКА

The self-consistent theory of non-radiative clusters of charges, localized by intrinsic alternating electromagnetic field, has been developed in the set of works. The solutions of self-consistent system of equations, composed of relativistic motion equation of charged medium and Maxwell equations, have been investigated. The theory has quantum-mechanical character and permits to study the particle-like spherically symmetric distributions of non-radiative charge. The possibility of oscillating localized cluster of distributed charge, which produces the radial component of electric field, creating the corresponding displacement current, has been shown. The radial component of electric field does not change its direction in space of cluster localization, but inside the cluster it always has extreme. The major part of cluster’s charge is located near sharp exterior system boundary, where the potential of system vanishes. It has been pointed to the chance of theory applicability for simulation of structure of oscillating charge cluster, being at free or bound states with dimensions by atomic one.

V. I. Gayduk, Eu.I. Nefedov, Z.V. Kharlamova

PARTICLE-LIKE SPHERICALLY SYMMETRIC DISTRIBUTION OF NON-RADIATING CHARGE

Preprint IREE (Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics) ASUSSR, Moscow, p.28, 1970

 

V. I. GaydukEu.I. Nefedov

SELF-CONSISTENT RELATIVISTIC EQUATION FOR CHARGED MEDIUM

Proceedings of Higher School (Izvestya Vuzov). Radio Electronics, 1971, v.14, pp. 1237-1240.

TOROIDAL CHARGE CLUSTER OF HAL FOX

The model, which could be able to explain the physical reasons of probable charges’ holding in bounded region of space by forces of electromagnetic origin, has been proposed in the work. The system of self-consistent equations for electron plasma, which consists of continuity equation and equation of charged fluid motion, is written. This system has been considered the forces, coupled with electromagnetic fields and pressure gradient. The equations have been supplemented with Maxwell equations. The obtained system of equations is not succeeded in solution. So, it’s supposed that the values of electric and magnetic fields, appearing inside the cluster, by order of values coincide with the values, giving by classic electrodynamics (?). In assumption of homogeneous density profile of electron liquid, rotating in toroid cluster, the equilibrium equation of forces passes into the radial criterion of equilibrium of such electron liquid. The estimations, made on results of experiments of Showlders, point out on the availability of execution of such equilibrium criterion.

Shang-Xian Jin & Hal Fox

CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGH-DENSITY CHARGE CLUSTER: A THEORETICAL MODEL  (pdf)

Journal of New Energy. 1996. Vol. 1. No. 4. pp. 5-20.

THERMAL ELECTRON ENERGY CONVERSION BY CHARGE CLUSTERS OF BULYGA

The availability of direct conversion of thermal energy to electric energy by thermal electron convertor (TEC) is investigated in the works. The qualitative and quantitative aspects of thermal electron convertor’s (TEC) work for thermal electron’s gas with temperature gradient have been suggested. The mechanism of excitation of explosive emission in the processes of thermionic conversion of energy is discussed. The results obtained can give the impulse to new researches of thermal electron conversion in low-sized systems with wide application of micro- and nano- technologies.

A.V. Bulyga

PUBLICATIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION BY THERMAL ELECTRON CONVERTER (in Russian)

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                     Дизайн: Фоломеев Евгений