THE JANUS COSMOLOGIC MODEL (JCM)

THE JANUS COSMOLOGIC MODEL (JCM)

Jean-Pierre Petit, a French astrophysicist and cosmologist, was born in 1937. Ph.D in kinetic theory of gases and plasma physics, he made his career in French research. He worked as a plasma physicist, directed a computer science center, created softwares.

Specialist in magnetohydrodynamics, topology, astrophysics and cosmology, retired from the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, Aix-Marseille University/CNRS, France, J.P. Petit has published hundreds of articles in scientific magazines, dealing with subjects ranging from fluid mechanics to theoretical cosmology. He has also published about 30 books which have been translated in several languages.

J.P. Petit has developed, with the support of Gilles D’Agostini and others, the JANUS Cosmologic Model (JCM), topic of this page, and whose works are also accessible on the following page, created by the authors :

https://januscosmologicalmodel.com/

PHYSICAL AND MATHEMATICAL CONSISTENCY OF THE COSMOLOGICAL MODEL (pdf)

J.-P. Petit, G. D'Agostini and N. Debergh

The Janus Cosmological Model is based on a system of two coupled field equations. It explains the nature of dark matter and dark energy with negative mass and without the runaway paradox that arises in general relativity.

We first recall how this system was built, from a simple Newtonian toy model to a relativistic bimetric theory, that is now improved in order to fulfil mathematical constraints and set up on a Lagrangian derivation.

THE JANUS COSMOLOGICAL MODEL (JCM): AN ANSWER TO THE MISSING COSMOLOGICAL ANTIMATTER

D'Agostini, Gilles; Petit, Jean-Pierre

Cosmological antimatter absence remains unexplained. Twin universes 1967 Sakarov's model suggests an answer: excess of matter and anti-quarks production in our universe is balanced by equivalent excess of antimatter and quark in twin universe.

JCM is a bimetric theory of gravity based on general relativity with a system of two coupled field equations, involving the presence of positive and negative masses in cosmology.

This “twin” matter, from a quantum point of view, is a copy of the standard matter but with negative mass and energy.

The JCM describes the universe as an M4 manifold with two metrics. The first metric g(+) or "positive sector" refers to a family of geodesics with positive mass and positive energy particles, while the second metric g(-) or "negative sector" refers to another family of geodesics with negative mass and negative energy particles. Negative mass particles emit negative energy photons that follow null geodesics of the metric g(-) hence cannot be seen.

The matter-antimatter duality holds in both sectors. The standard and twin matters do not interact except through the gravitational coupling expressed in field equations. The twin matter is unobservable from matter-made apparatus. Field equations shows that matter and twin matter repel each other. Twin matter surrounding galaxies explains their confinement (dark matter role) and, in the dust universe era, mainly drives the process of expansion of the positive sector, responsible of the observed acceleration (dark energy role).

The Newtonian approximation provides the interaction laws: particles whose masses own the same sign mutually attract through Newton's law, while particles whose masses have opposite signs mutually repel through anti-Newton's law. This solves the unmanageable Runaway paradox, which arises when one tries to include negative masses in Einstein's model.

Like Andrei Sakharov's model, the second sector is a CPT symmetry of the first one, linked together by the Big Bang, and explains the apparent lack of primordial antimatter.

Dynamical group theory demonstrates that the reversal of the arrow of time equals energy inversion, and provides the nature of negative species.

The negative sector contributes to the gravitational field and negative pressure and replaces both dark matter and dark energy of the concordance model and its six free parameters, without ant ad hoc parameter.

The model challenges dark matter as it explains the formation of galactic spiral structures, their confinement and their anomalous rotation curves. It also explains the formation of galaxy clusters and the large-scale structure of the universe, the giant voids and the Dipole Repeller effect. Mirage effects around galaxies and galaxy clusters are due to a negative gravitational lensing effect.

The model challenges dark energy, giving an exact solution referring to the matter-dominated era, which exhibits an accelerating expansion process for positive species and fits very well with available observational data.

During the radiation-dominated era, the universe undergoes a variable constants regime, with a variation of the speed of light (VSL) and of all the constants of physics, involved in a generalized gauge process. Then the horizon grows like the space scale factor. This explains the homogeneity and isotropy of the primitive universe with no need to resort to the inflation hypothesis and the inflaton field.

The two sectors have different speeds of light and scale factors. If a space probe could achieve a mass inversion process and cruise at a relativistic velocity following geodesics of the negative sector, the travel duration could be three orders of magnitude shorter than a corresponding conventional relativistic trip in the positive sector. The model suggests that interstellar travel in a limited time inferior to human's lifespan becomes theoretically possible.

The Janus model has been published in peer reviewed scientific journals.

MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL INCONSISTENCY OF THE BLACK HOLES MODEL. THE PLUGSTARS MODEL AS AN ALTERNATIVE (на французском) (pdf)

Inconsistance mathématique et physique du modèle des Trous Noirs. Le modèle des Plugstars en tant qu’alternative (2022)

J.P.Petit, G. D’Agostini, Manaty Research Group

We detail the different points on which the black hole model is based, showing in particular that the Kruskal metric extension is based on an irregular variable change, associated with the assumption that zero raised to the power of zero is equal to unity.

The naïve obsession with the contractibility of space leads its designers to a real geometric aberration consisting in considering that within the object the variables of time and space see their roles exchanged, while a structure equipped with a throat sphere avoids this choice.

It is shown that a re-reading of the inner Schwarzschild solution, combined with the choice of another time coordinate admitting the presence of a drdt cross term, leads to consider a one-way membrane, as a communication interface between two Lorentzian spacetimes through which matter passes in a finite time, which invalidates the treatment of the outer Schwarzschild solution as a freeze frame of a very fast process.

Taking into account the inner Schwarzschild solution, where physical criticality occurs before geometric criticality, shows that this results in a local inversion, at the center of the object, of the time variable and the mass of the particles. This phenomenon can then be interpreted through the Janus cosmological model, this excess mass being immediately ejected out of the star.

An alternative model, of plugstar, emerges, presenting a gravitational redshift of 3, which fits with the data collected for the hypermassive objects of M87 and the Milky Way.

We predict that this same value will accompany similar images that will be collected in the future.

JANUS MODEL’S YOUTUBE PLAYLIST IN ENGLISH:

For J.P. Petit, a French astrophysicist and cosmologist born in 1937, the difficulty is to be read and most importantly to be understood.

In this series of 27 videos, explains the Janus Cosmological Model (JCM) and its basic concepts.

The 11 first ones rather talk about the history and evolution of astrophysics and cosmology through time, from antiquity to modern days. The foundations of the Janus model are tackled from video N° 12.

The videos are in French, but subtitled in English in order to share and expand the JCM outside of France, where the climate has proved quite unfavourable to the development of novel ideas in cosmology.

CONSTRAINTS ON JANUS COSMOLOGICAL MODEL FROM RECENT OBSERVATIONS OF SUPERNOVAE TYPE LA (2018) (pdf)

D'Agostini G. and Petit J.P.

From our exact solution of the Janus Cosmological equation, we derive the relation of the predicted magnitude of distant sources versus their red shift.

The comparison, through this one free parameter model, to the available data from 740 distant supernovae shows an excellent fit.

ON EXIDENCE FOR NEGATIVE ENERGIESAND MASSES IN THE DIRAC EQUATION THROUGH A UNITARY TIME-REVERSAL OPERATOR (2018, Journal of Physics) (pdf)

N. Debergh, J.-P. Petit, and G. D'Agostini

We review the standards of relativistic quantum mechanics such as the Dirac equation under the concept of negative masses.

We show that negative energies are acceptable provided the masses are simultaneously negative.

Negative energy and mass anti-fermions are obtained from positive energy and mass fermions through a unitary PT transformation.

JANUS COSMOLOGICAL MODEL & FASTER-THAN-LIGHT (FTL) TRAVEL

From a French participant on this forum

The Janus Cosmological Model (JCM) theoretically makes FTL interstellar travel possible, with limited energy source and journey duration compatible with human's lifespan. In order to understand how FTL travel is made possible in the model (superluminal speed being "apparent" and does not actually imply travelling over the speed of light, you'll see why) I have to first present its physical and mathematical foundations.

Other posts by this participant on this forum :

• About the problem of the introduction of negative mass in cosmology and how the Janus model resolves the Runaway paradox, and why T-symmetry reverses the mass of a particle, see this prior post .

• For Sakharov's model about two mirror universes with opposite arrows of time as a solution to the baryon asymmetry of the universe, CPT symmetry, CP violation during baryogenesis and the missing primordial antimatter (theory included in the Janus model) see this prior post. It also describes the nature of the four types of matter (positive mass matter and positive mass antimatter, as well as negative mass matter and negative mass antimatter).

• The negative pressure content of the universe drives the accelerating cosmic expansion. To learn why such a negative pressure is caused by the negative energy density of the universe's second sector, i.e. because of the global distribution of negative mass matter in the universe (and NOT because of some "repulsive power of the vacuum" of positive energy that classically results from the addition of a cosmological constant): see this post.

• To see how the Janus model fits so well with latest observational data showing an accelerating expansion, the result being an exact solution with no had hoc parameter, see this post.

THE JANUS COSMOLOGIC MODEL: A SHORT SUMMARY (in French)

by P. Lopes (France)

A 3 minute-read to understand.