DEVELOPMENT OF ALTERNATIVES OF SRT AND GRT. THEORIES OF "AETHER"
A.A. Logunov, V.I. Denisov, A.A. Vlasov, M.A. Mestvirishvili, V.N. Folomeshkin
On the basis of the principle of relativity, which holds for all physical processes, including gravitational fields a new theory of gravitation is constructed by combining the concept of the gravitational field as a physical field (possessing energy-momentum density) with an identity principle which is formulated in the present paper. The new theory changes the concept of space-time and is able to explain the existing experimental facts.
М. Kh. Shulman
PARADOXES, LOGIC AND PHYICAL NATURE OF TIME (2015) (in Russian)
A model of the Universe (similar to the Friedman-Einstein model) in the form of a 3-dimensional hypersurface in a purely Euclidean 4-dimensional continuum. Analysis of the limitations of the principle of equivalence of Einstein, new solution of cosmological equations found.
Time is identified to the increasing radius of the universe and is always parallel to the normal of the hypersurface of a ball. The physical meaning is attributed not to the particles, but to their “lines”, and this is the essence of the movement of bodies, taking also into account the expansion of the universe.
Limitations of the principle of relativity shown, and the experimental fact of anisotropy of relic radiation is explained. The models are compared to astrophysical observations.
Hypothesis formulated that the mass of particles is a quantic number – a ratio of the size of the Universe t the length of the de Broglie’s wave, which grows over time.
Individual parameters of de Broglie waves are therefore : "built-in" watches, and sample of lengths for each quantum object. The new Cosmology, the model of the “Big bang”, which involves the conservation of masses and energy of the universe, is replaced with a model of "energy pump".
New approach to the description of accelerated motion, of radiation and of the irreversibility of the evolution of Universe.
D. E. Burlankov
WHAT IS THE «THEORY OF GLOBAL TIME » (2005) (pdf, in Russian)
Relying on a developed the mathematical apparatus, this “TGT” introduces a “new” physical object in physics: space. From the point of view of theoretical physics this is a 9-component field with a curved functional space. Like other fields, for instance, electromagnetic, it possesses a density and flow of energy, and on a cosmic scale the energy of the deformed space is huge because of the greatness of the [ c4 /(16.πk) ] multiplier in the expression of the energy density (5). Our world is almost Euclidean, not because of the ideality of Euclidean geometry, but because any deviations from the Euclidean form require an enormous quantity of energy.
D. E. Burlankov
CRISIS OF THE «GENERAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY » (2008) (pdf, in Russia)
The General Theory of Relativity (GRT), which gave extremely fruitful ideas about the curvature of space and dynamism, has stalled. This impasse is clearly seen in the quantum theory of gravitation, whose “surrogates” are the “loop theory of gravitation” and the “string theory”, the so-called two-dimensional gravity (with no points of contact with the physics of the GRT, apart from similar mathematical problems associated with common covariance), demonstrated the complete failure in solving problems of space and time in the transition to the quantum area.
These theories are * successfully solving problems encountered within themselves, but in no way can help “reach out” to the quantum physics of space and time.
We need to build a different, self-consistent theory, based on other physical fundamentals, while including the positive elements developed by general relativity. The Friedman model describes the dynamics of the 3-dimensional space in global time. The dynamics of the 3-dimensional space with high symmetry have to evolve to the dynamics of a random 3-dimensional space.
Such a theory is the Theory of Global Time (TGT), found and published by the author. In this theory, the space is dynamic, while the time remains global and uniform with respect to itself; thus any time shift leads to a well defined notion of energy, which is not positively defined for space.
В этой теории пространство является динамическим объектом, а время глобально, равномерно само по себе, поэтому сдвиг по времени приводит к хорошо определенному понятию энергии, которая для пространства не является положительно определенной.
D. E. Burlankov
ANALYSIS OF THE GENERAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY (2011) (pdf, in Russian)
The General Theory of Relativity (GRT) is based on two principles:
1. the principle of equivalence, which led to a geometric interpretation of the effects of gravity and which initiated many innovative ideas, such as the idea of the expanding Universe.
2. the principle of general covariance, excluding the objective notion of time from physics.
Purpose of this work: to show the effectiveness of geometric ideas of the GRT and the impasse of the “principle of common covariance”, as well as simplicity and naturalness of modification of the theory when refusing this principle.
In author's "Theory of Global Time", we find a modification of the GRT, in which "global time" is the “own time” of space, unique for all its points.
Many recent highly precise and unmistakable observational facts achieved thanks to the tightly synchronized clocks of the GPS, provide consistent evidence that the gravitational fields are created by velocity fields of real space itself, a vigorous and very stable quantum fluid like spatial medium, the same space that rules the propagation of light and the inertial motion of matter.
It is shown that motion of this real space in the ordinary three dimensions round the Earth, round the Sun and round the galactic centers throughout the universe, according to velocity fields closely consistent with the local main astronomical motions, correctly induces the gravitational dynamics observed within these gravitational fields. In this spacedynamics the astronomical bodies all closely rest with respect to the real space, which forth-rightly leads to the observed null results of the Michelson light anisotropy experiments as well as to the absence of effects of the solar and galactic gravitational fields on the rate of clocks moving with Earth as recently discovered with the help of the GPS clocks.
This spacedynamics also eliminates the need of dark matter and dark energy to explain respectively the galactic gravitational dynamics and the accelerated expansion of the universe. It also straightforwardly accounts in terms of well known and genuine physical effects for all the other observed effects, caused by the gravitational fields on the velocity of light and on the rate of clocks, including all the new effects recently discovered with the help of the GPS. It moreover simulates the non-Euclidean metric underlying Einstein’s spacetime curvature.
FUNDAMENTALS OF THE THEORY OF ANISOTROPIC SPACE (2007) (pdf, in Russian)
Fundamentals of the theory of the anisotropic space based on modified Lorentz transformations are given. These new transformations explain Michelson-Morley’s experiments and Maxwell’s electrodynamics, but without postulation of invariance of velocity of light. Lorentz's modified transformations in contrast to Lorentz's transformations does not lead to any paradoxes and contradictions. They transform to classical Galilee’s transformations at V<<c. The proposed transformations allow explaining the anisotropic phenomena. Some experiments are proposed to check this theory.
N. V. Kupryaev
Usually it is mistakenly believed (even among professional physicists) that in the special theory of relativity, time in a moving reference system slows down relative to a stationary reference frame. However, this is not entirely true.
Slowing of time applies only to a specific point. In general, for all reference systems, time may slow down or accelerate, and even have any value. In this case, the coordinates of events are linked by the Tangerlini transformation, not by Lorentz transformation, even in the inertial system.
F. F. Gorbatsevich
THE AETHER MEDIUM AND UNIVERSUM (2004) (in Russian)
Based on the proposed "quasi-solid" model of aether, known electrical and magnetic phenomena are explained. It is shown that the movement of a physical body in the air at the speed of light requires an infinitely great amount of energy. When moving a charge through the aether, the Galileo principle is not respected. An unified concept of the universum is proposed, combining categories of space, time and gravitation. While the space is neither rigid, nor Euclidean, nor 3-dimensional.
The spatial-grid-like structure of the aether medium is deformed under the influence of electromagnetic fields (waves), or the influence of physical bodies. The aether has specific weight and elastic properties. This medium is discreet (at the micro-scale) and manifests itself as a continuous medium at a macro-scale.
The aether may undergo static or dynamic, shearing, bunching, twisting deformation. It is the basis for the propagation of electromagnetic vibrations and for the transmission of gravitational interaction between physical bodies. Physical bodies (elementary particles, gases, liquids, solids, plasma, etc.) find themselves in the space and in the aether medium. They are permeable to this aether.
AETHER THEORIES OF GRAVITATION (in Russian)
V. L. Dyatlov
A POLARIZED MODEL OF A NON-HOMOGENEOUS PHYSICAL VACUUM (1998) (pdf, in Russian)
According to thuis model, the physical vacuum is a ubiquitous occurrence of a heterogeneous polarized medium, consisting of 1 homogeneous-absolute-physical vacuum and 2 modified physical vacuum of matter and antimatter. Local formation of one or the other modified vacuum, called “vacuum domains” by the author, float in the unlimited medium of absolute physical vacuum.
The properties of the “absolute physical vacuum” are described by loose systems of equations of Maxwell electrodynamics and Heaviside gravidynamics. Heaviside's equations are introduced two induction and two fields, gravity and spin.
The properties of the 2 physical vacuum, matter and antimatter, are described by associated equations of Maxwell and Heaviside. The relationship of these equations is based on the linear dependence of electrical and magnetic inductions, not only from the same, but also from gravitational and spin fields, as well as on the dependence of the gravitational and spin inductions not only from the same, but also from the electric and magnetic fields.
The matter in the model is represented by equations of the electronic theory of matter, and on mechanical theory of continuous media.
In support of the developed models, there is a comparison of physical properties of vacuum domains with anomalous phenomena such as ball lightning, tornadoes, UFO, poltergeist, etc.
ABOUT VACUUM DOMAINS. QUESTIONS ABOUT THIS CONCEPT, CRITICS OF B.L. DYATLOV’S BOOK (2001)
L. I. Kholodov, I. V. Goryachev
ABOUT THE PROPERTIES OF TERLETSKIY’S LEPTONIC QUADRIGUE IN THE ELECTROMAGNATIC VACUUM (2008) (pdf, in Russian)
L. I. Kholodov, I. V. Goryachev
THOUGHTS ABOUT THE SYMMETRIC PHYSICAL VACUUM (2015) (pdf, in Russian)
This paper discusses a new direction in studying the physical vacuum, which is based on the hypothesis of Yakov Petrovich Terletskiy of Symmetries of matter in the universe. Modern physics is built on that matter in the Universe has only positive energy and mass. This applies to physical vacuum that leads to models, which seem unrealistic.
Ya.P. Terlitskiy considered the possibility of existence of positive and negative particles masses, and came to believe that the mass of the universe is almost zero, i.e. the Universe is symmetrical by mass and energy!
Hence it can be concluded that in a symmetric Universe, the physical vacuum should also be symmetrical and have a total zero energy and weight!
We have for many years dealt with various properties of symmetric matter and physical vacuum. This has laid ground to the works of Ya. Terletsky and to the consistent (in our opinion) physical models, which are derived from them. In this paper, we presente a synthesis of the conclusions of our research on models of physical vacuum.
Various authors, which are right or wrong.