INTERESTING BOOKS, ARTICLES AND VIDEO
Physicists have reported finding the first irrefutable proof of the existence of unusual particle-like objects called "anyons". This was revealed as a result of experiments on special flat "topological structures".
The results potentially lay the foundation for the application of anyons. Pairs of these quasiparticles can encode information in their memory about how they circled each other. And since fractional statistics are "topological" - it depends on how many times one enyon has bypassed another, and not on minor changes in its path - it is not affected by tiny perturbations. This reliability can simplify the scaling of topological quantum computers compared to modern quantum computing technologies, which are error-prone.
Related topic article:
Over the past decade, scientists have discovered that topology provides a unique insight into the physics of materials, such as how some insulators can conduct electricity imperceptibly along a monatomic layer on their surface.
Scientists hope that topological materials will eventually find application in faster and more efficient computer chips. And these materials are already being used as virtual laboratories to test predictions about exotic and undiscovered elementary particles and the laws of physics.
Experimenters looking for new topological insulators have usually relied on a laborious process that involves calculating the possible electron energies in each material to predict its properties. A team led by physicist Andrei Bernevig from Princeton University has now found a shortcut. Researchers have created an atlas of topological matter by studying all 230 different symmetries that can exist in the crystal structure of a material. Then they systematically predicted which of these symmetries, in principle, could adapt to topological states, without having to calculate all their energy levels beforehand.
In the 1970s, physicists developed a system of equations describing the types of elementary particles and their interactions. Together, these equations formed a concise theory, now known as the "Standard Model" of particle physics.
Is it possible to visualize this model in any way visually and holistically for the convenience of generalized perception? An example of such an attempt is presented here.
S.B. Karavashkin, O.N. Karavashkina
CRITERIA OF TRUENESS Of KNOWLEDGE (2017) (pdf, in Russian)
To determine the truth of this or that scientific judgment is sometimes very difficult. Authors (who themselves are physicists) reasonably propose the concept of effective criteria for the truth of knowledge, which should be used by the authors of scientific ideas and those who analyze these proposed ideas.
THE PROOF AND ITS ROLE IN SCIENCE AND IN PRACTICE (pdf, in Russian)
The skills of logical proof of judgments and evaluation of the truth of the expressed judgments are necessary both in natural and in social sciences, as well as in our daily life.
In the article this topic is discussed in detail from the standpoint of strict scientific philosophy.
EMERGENT GRAVITY AND THE DARK UNIVERSE (2016) (pdf)
A new theory of gravity might explain the curious motions of stars in galaxies. Emergent gravity, as the new theory is called, predicts the exact same deviation of motions that is usually explained by invoking dark matter. Prof. Erik Verlinde, renowned expert in string theory at the University of Amsterdam and the Delta Institute for Theoretical Physics, published a new research paper in which he expands his groundbreaking views on the nature of gravity.
Already in 2010, in his article (On the origin of gravity and the laws of Newton), Erik Verlinde surprised the world with a completely new theory of gravity. According to Verlinde, gravity is not a fundamental force of nature, but an emergent phenomenon. In the same way that temperature arises from the movement of microscopic particles, gravity emerges from the changes of fundamental bits of information, stored in the very structure of spacetime.
Excerpt of the 2010 article : “Starting from first principles and general assumptions Newton's law of gravitation is shown to arise naturally and unavoidably in a theory in which space is emergent through a holographic scenario. Gravity is explained as an entropic force caused by changes in the information associated with the positions of material bodies. A relativistic generalization of the presented arguments directly leads to the Einstein equations. When space is emergent even Newton's law of inertia needs to be explained. The equivalence principle leads us to conclude that it is actually this law of inertia whose origin is entropic.”
Extending his previous work and work done by others, Verlinde now shows how to understand the curious behaviour of stars in galaxies without adding the puzzling dark matter.
New theory of gravity might explain dark matter
Graham P. Collins
THE FORMS OF THE SPAVE (pdf, in Russian)
The articles reverts to G. Perelman’s demonstration of the Theorem of Poincaré, one of the so called “Millenium’s problems”.
The Theory of the Fundamental Field (I. Gerlovin, see our section : « New Theories / Gerlovin » : relies on a few initial principles and mathematical constructions. One of such postulates is that the Space is to be considered as a multi-dimensional bundle space.
Each bundle of space is linked to the others, the overall, encompassing, “zero-space” (our Universe) being a S3 sphere.
THE THEOREM OF POINCARE IN SIMPLE WORDS (pdf, in Russian)
V. А. Uspenskiy
THE THEOREM OF POINCARE-PERELMAN PRESENTED BY V. USPENSKIY (pdf, in Russian)
David B. Kaplan, Sichun Sun
SPACETIME AS A TOPOLOGICAL INSULATOR: MECHANISM FOR THE ORIGIN OF THE FERMION GENERATIONS (2012) (pdf)
We suggest a mechanism whereby the three generations of quarks and leptons correspond to surface modes in a five-dimensional theory. These modes arise from a nonlinear fermion dispersion relation in the extra dimension, much in the same manner as fermion surface modes in a topological insulator or lattice implementation of domain wall fermions. We also show that the topological properties can persist in a deconstructed version of the model in four dimensions.
THE EXPERIENCE OF MICHELSON REPEATED (2009)
THE STUDY OF WATER’S STRUCTURE CONTINUES (2015) (in Russian)
Несмотря на простую химическую формулу, вода — вещество с очень нетривиальными свойствами. Причина этого в том, что молекулы воды связаны друг с другом водородными связями. В жидком состоянии вода представляет собой не просто мешанину молекул, а сложную и динамически меняющуюся сеть из водных кластеров. Каждый отдельный кластер живет очень небольшое время, однако именно поведение кластеров влияет на структуру воды.
Свойства и динамика водных кластеров (H20)n — предмет активных исследований. В отличие от металлических кластеров с их фиксированной пространственной структурой, водные кластеры размером от нескольких до нескольких десятков молекул даже при температурах ниже комнатной остаются жидкими: у таких кластеров есть много равноправных форм, между которыми они непрерывно перескакивают.
Ramiro Moro, Roman Rabinovitch, Chunlei Xia, and Vitaly V. Kresin (2006)
The response of (H2O)n=3-18 clusters to an electric field is studied by beam deflection. All clusters deflect uniformly, behaving as polarizable particles. The effective polarizabilities exceed the electronic component and increase as the clusters are cooled, revealing a large permanent dipole contribution. The results resolve a discrepancy concerning the polarity of water clusters and show that all species access conformations with moments exceeding 1 D. The data show no evidence for a freezing transition down to ∼120 K, but suggest a shift in the conformer arrangement at n=8-9.
NANOMINERALOGY OF WATER AND BIOSPHERE PROCESSES ВОДЫ (Madadan, Far-East Division of the Russian Academy of Science, 2000 ) (pdf, in Russian)
A new appraoch to water and to some magmatic processes, based on an original polytetrameric model of the structure of water. Basic “elements” in liquid water are “tetramers”, a structure made of 4 molecules of water (i.e. H408).
The article also gives a fresh view of processes happening in a storm clouds, as well as influence of water on the birth of life, as well as on DNA formation and structure.
Water’s unique structure and properties explain its fundamental role in biosphere’s processes.
© Ю.А. Колясников, 2000
© СВНЦ ДВО РАН, 2000
N. I. Kobozev
RESEARCH IN THE FIELD OF THERMODYNAMICS OF INFORMATION PROCESSES AND THINKING (1971) (in Russian)
Based on thermodynamics, this monograph tackles: the level of mental functions that are capable to implement molecular mechanisms in the brain or in its artificial models; thermodynamics of information and thinking processes; interpretation of negative entropy; structures storing the genetic information and operating memory in living creatures.
Andre Koch Torres Assis
BOOK "THE EXPERIMENTAL AND HISTORICAL FOUNDATIONS OF ELECTRICITY "
Professor of physics at the University of Campinas - UNICAMP, in Brazil, workув with gravitation (Relational Mechanics, Mach's principle and the origin of inertia, absorption of gravity), electromagnetism (Weber's Electrodynamics, Ampère's force between current elements, electric field outside resistive wires carrying steady currents, propagation of electromagnetic signals), cosmology (Hubble's law of redshifts, cosmic background radiation, tired light, infinite universe in space and time) and history of science.
One of the targets of this book is to present the main phenomena linked to electricity, via simple experiments, which can easily be reproduced with the help of inexpensive materials.
Personal website of the author: http://www.ifi.unicamp.br/~assis