RESEARCH BY SCHNOLL S. E.
Simon El'evich SHNOLL is a legendary figure of Russian science, a wonderful storyteller, a profound historian of Soviet science, a flawless citizen, with a stunning erudition and scientific courage. Born in Moscow on March 21, 1930.
His father, Eli Gershevich Shnoll, a linguist and philosopher, has been arrested in 1933, under Soviet repression. His mother, Faina Yakovlevna Yudovich, was a the teacher of Russian language and literature.
Before the war, he studied in Kaluga. During his studies, he worked as a shepherd and an electrician. Since 1944, he was pupil at children's home №38 in Moscow.
I passed the external examinations in the ninth grade and enrolled in the 10th grade of school №352 in Moscow.
In 1946 he entered the Faculty of Biology, Moscow State University. Upon completion he was sent to work on the use of radioactive isotopes in the newly organized Department of Medical Radiology. He worked as senior laboratory assistant, assistant (1954), associate professor (1959) of the department. In 1960 he joined the Moscow State University, first as a senior researcher and then, as an associate professor of Biophysics Physical Faculty.
In 1963, at the invitation of Academician G.M. Frank, along with the work of the Moscow State University, he became the head of the Laboratory of Physical Biochemistry at the Institute of Biophysics, in Pushchino.
In the years 1954-1957, he demonstrated the high probability of occurrence of oscillatory modes in biochemical reactions. These regimes are dedicated to later work.
The study of oscillatory responses on the example of the reaction discovered by B.P. Belousov, conducted under the guidance of S.E. Shnoll by the graduate student A.M. Zhabotinsky, gained prominence and fame.
The doctoral thesis "Spontaneous reversible changes ("conformational oscillations") of muscle proteins' products", presented in 1970, is dedicated to the results of researches initiated in 1951.
The works detected regular change in the fine structure of the statistical distributions of the results, when measuring processes of different nature.
The form of the histograms, in the same local time, showed a high probability of similitude, when measuring processes of different nature, and in various geographical locations. The variations showed a periodicity equal to the sidereal day (23 hr. 56 min.).
Hence the conclusion about a fundamental, cosmophysical nature of this phenomenon (1985-2002).
After decades of his experimental research studies, Prof. S.E.Shnoll found that the fundamental oscillatory modes, first registered by him in biochemical reactions, are as well presented in any sort of processes: from biology to the nuclear decay and the generators of random numbers (other researchers call also on the manifestation of the discovered oscillation modes in the social phenomena such as the business markets).
He also found that the discovered oscillatory modes depend in the cycles according to the motion of the Earth, in common with the observer and his laboratory, in the cosmos.
So the oscillatory modes may be caused by the cosmic physical factors depending on the fundamental structure of space - time.
FACES OF TIME. ON THE STATE OF THE PHYSICAl WORLD AND THE LAWS OF ITS CHANGE.
TV program of Alexander Gordon
Date - 03.06.2002
Talk with S.E. Shnoll - Doctor of Biological Sciences, member of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Physics, Moscow State University, a former manager. Laboratory of Physical Biochemistry, Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics (Pushchino), Honored Soros Professor.
Each moment in time has its own character. Time is not the same when it passes by. What is the phenomenon of macroscopic fluctuations and how experiments which can be made in any physical laborator are able to change our fundamental view of the reality ?
About the states of the world and the laws of its change : MGU's professor Simon Shnoll recently received as a gift a planet with his name, this planed having been discovered by the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory.
Simon E. Shnoll, Konstantin I. Zenchenko, Iosas I. Berulis, Natalia V. Udaltsova, Ilia A. Rubinstein
The fine structure of histograms of measurements of 239Pu alpha-activity varies periodically, and the period of these variations is equal to sidereal day (1436 minutes). The periodicity is not observed in the experiments with collimator that restricts the alpha particles flow to be oriented to the Polar Star. Based on this study and other independent data, such as measurements conducted by the Arctic expedition, and similarity of the histograms in processes observed at different locations at the same local time, the conclusion was made, that the fine structure of statistical distributions of the observed processes depends on the celestial sphere.
S.E. Shnoll, I.A.Rubinshtejn, K.I. Zenchenko, V.A.Shlekhtarev, A.V.Kaminsky, A.A.Konradov, N.V.Udaltsova
As shown in our previous experiments fine structure of histograms of alpha-activity measurements serve as a sensitive tool for investigation of cosmo-physical influences. Particularly, the histograms structure is changed with the period equal to sidereal (1436 min) and solar (1440) day. It is similar with the high probability in different geographic points at the same local (longitude) time. More recently investigations were carried out with collimators, cutting out separate flows of total alpha-particles flying out at radioactive decay of 239Pu. These experiments revealed sharp dependence the histogram structure on the direction of alpha-particles flow. In the presented work measurements were made with collimators rotating in the plane of sky equator. It was shown that during rotation the shape of histograms changes with periods determined by number of revolution. These results correspond to the assumption that the histogram shapes are determined by a picture of the celestial sphere, and also by interposition of the Earth, the Sun and the Moon.
S. E. Shnoll, K. I. Zenchenko, N. V. Udaltsova
As shown in the previous publications, the shape of the histograms constructed by measurements of alpha-activity of samples of Pu-239, changes with periods equal approximately 24 hours, 27 days, and a year. At a higher resolution each of these periods splits as a minimum in two components: daily period consists of two: sidereal day (1436 minutes) and solar day (1440 minutes), 27-days period splits in 2 to 3 "sub-periods", and the yearly period appears to be a join of "calendar" period (which is equal to 1440 x 365 = 525600 minutes) and "solar" period (equal to [(1440 x 365) + 369] =525969 minutes). In the present paper results of more detailed research of this phenomenon are offered.
S. E. Shnoll
Earlier we showed that the fine structure of the spectrum of amplitude variations in the results of measurements of the processes of different nature (in other words, the fine structure of the dispersion of results or the pattern of the corresponding histograms) is subject to macroscopic fluctuations, changing regularly with time. These changes indicate that the dispersion of results that remains after all artifacts are excluded inevitably accompanies any measurements and reflects very basic features of our world. In our research, we have come to the conclusion that this dispersion of results is the effect of space-time fluctuations, which, in their turn, are caused by the movement of the measured object in an anisotropic gravitational field. Among other things, this conclusion means that the examination of the detailed pattern of distributions obtained from the results of measurement of the dynamics of processes of different nature discovers laws, which cannot be revealed with traditional methods for the analysis of time series. These assertions are based on the results of long-term experimental investigations conducted for many decades. The major part of these results, starting with 1958, is published in Russian. The goal of this paper is to give a brief review of those results and provide corresponding references. The most general conclusion of our research is the evidence that the fine structure of stochastic distributions is not accidental. In other words, noncasual is the pattern of histograms plotted from a rather small number of the results of measurement of the dynamics of processes of different nature, from the biochemical reactions and noise in the gravitational antenna to the alpha-decay.
V. A. Panchelyuga , S. E. Shnoll
This paper addresses further investigations of local-time effects on the laboratory scale. We study dependence of the effect on spatial directions defined by a pair of sources of fluctuations. The results show that the effect appears in the neighborhood of directions North-South and East-West. Only for these directions are the experimental results in excellent agreement with theoretically predicted local-time values. The results reveal the character of near-Earth space heterogeneity and lead to the conclusion that at the laboratory scale, local-time effects cannot be caused by some axial-symmetric structure, which has permanent properties along an Earth meridian. Appearance of the effect along an Earth parallel is linked to rotational motion of the Earth. Observed properties of local-time effects in the direction of an Earth meridian can be linked to motion of the Earth in this direction.
V. A. Panchelyuga , S. E. Shnoll
A STUDY OF A LOCAL TIME EFFECT ON MOVING SOURCES OF FLUCTUATIONS (2007) (pdf)
This work presents an experimental investigation of a possible mechanism causing local time effects, with the aid of moving sources of fluctuations. The results show that the measurement system, consisting of two separated sources of fluctuations moving in a near-Earth space, can detect its own motion in form of a local time effect, or in other words, we can determine uniform and rectilinear motion of an isolated system on the basis of measurements made inside the system.