ABOUT THE "UNIFIED THEORY OF FUNDAMENTAL FIELD (TFF)" (3 / 3)

The main ideas of the TFF :

 

The TFF is based on a physical-mathematical model of "fiber spaces". Fiber spaces are a concept widely used in modern mathematics. However, at the time of formation of the TFF, in the 1960s, it was quite unusual, rarely used in physics and mathematics. It is a system of subspaces, complementary to each others, considered as a mathematical construction, in which the space embracing all its elements is called the "enclosing space", and the other subspaces inside it are subspaces, which are both basis of the bundle, and layers of this bundle.  The "laboratory" physical subspace which we observe (the real, surrounding world) is the base of the bundle, outside which we find other subspaces, characterized by a hidden structure of elementary particles, and where various hidden (for us) physical interactions take place.

 

Basic quantum parameters observed in our "laboratory" subspace (mass, charge, spin, magnetic moment, etc.) are formed in other layers of the fiber space. Therefore, we cannot accurately calculate the values ​​of the quantum parameters in the "laboratory" subspace and we are forced instead to use probabilistic analysis methods in order to determine them.

 

In relation to any given subspace (base or layer), any other subspace, included in the enclosing space, is always in the imaginary field.

 

Between the subspace-layers, or between the base of the bundle (fiber space) and a given layer, only "information links" are possible.

 

The functional condition or the physical-mathematical model of fiber spaces is the "spatial metamorphosis". The spatial metamorphosis sets various geometric shapes of a given object, which are implemented in the various subspaces of the enclosing space. The main principle with respect to the spatial polymorphism is that it should respect the conditions of "communication mappings" between the different layers of the physical fibered (bundle) space.

 

The basic equation of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, according to the TFF, is not the equation of the gravitational field (for example, see the reasonably critics formulated by A.A. Logunov), but the equation of the fundamental connection between "time", "space" and "matter ". In other words, there is a covariant link of space-time and matter in all subspaces of the fibered  physical space.

The "Lambda" term in the GTR formula describes the distribution of mass and charge all over the space in one of the physical layers, which does not allow them to localize in any finite volume, outside which there would be no mass, no charge. Therefore, in the TFF, when considering localized objects, no "Lambda" term is used in the equations. The nature of the spin fields discovered by Dirac, is associated with this feature of the "mapping" (reflection, image) of matter from one layer with a continuous distribution of these parameters, into the layers where the objects are punctual and always moving.

 

According to the TFF, the topology of the base of the physical fibered (bundle) space, defining the properties of the physical vacuum's structure, corresponds to a three-dimensional sphere S^3 , as considered in the Theorem of Poincarré, recently proven by G. Perelman. In one of the layers of the fibered enclosing physical space, there are Dirac magnetic monopoles, which can be considered in the TFF theory as " charges of the Fundamental Field " (FE). Thus,  the FF has the character of a scalar field, with a given total value of charge generated in the S^3 subspace.

The matter of elementary particles, according to the TFF, is the "fundamenton" : it is an "undetectable" (in our "laboratory" subspace) particle, which is a dipole of FF charges in one of the layers of the fibered physical space, essentially a tachyon y its properties, and in other layers it behaves as a "naked (nude) elementary particle" (NEP) and its antiparticle ("anti-NEP"). In fact, this "fundamenton" may be regarded as a "Planck particle." 

The excited state of the fundamenton means an oscillation of the dipole. When we observe, in our "laboratory" subspace, any elementary particle (eg, a proton or anelectron), we detect only manifestations of stable excited states of the fundamentons. Metastable states of the fundamentons correspond to short-lived elementary particles (including resonances).

 

According to the TFF, various kinds of excited states (oscillations) of the fundaments generate different kinds of NEPs in other layers of the fibered space. NEPs are basically fermions, which, according to the TFF, do not exist as such in the "laboratory" subspace without interaction with the physical vacuum (i.e. no "quark structures" of fundamentally different type are formed, as compared with the existing physical representations). There is a large number (around 800 000) of mathematically possible types of NEPs, but only  very few of them are observable in our world (when interacting with the physical vacuum), including those not yet discovered (but predicted by the TFF [2] ) : other NEPs have simply a lifetime less than 10-13 seconds, which doesn't allow to express themselves in the "laboratory" subspace. The remaining NEPs represent virtual particles.

 

The structure of the physical vacuum consists of peculiar sub-quark particles, not existing in our "laboratory" subspace : the " elementary particles of vacuum " (EPV), each consisting of pair of NEP and anti-NEP (fermion - antifermion pair). As a result,  the physical vacuum is a mixture of several "kinds of vacuums" depending on the kind of its constituting NEPs. According to theoretical calculations in the TF, there are 9 kinds of vacuums. But only 2 of them noticeably manifest themselves in the physical world, those with the highest density: in the first place - the proton-antiproton vacuum (density of approx. 1.54 × 1039 cm-3), and secondly - the electron-positron vacuum (density of approx. 1.73 × 1029 cm-3). The basic properties of the "laboratory" physical vacuum (including, e.g., the dielectric permeability), are determined by the properties of the proton-antiproton vacuum.

 

In the case when the physical vacuum (outside the "laboratory" subspace) has a "surplus" of unpaired NEPs (incapable to form EPVs), they combine with the EPVs in order to form "quark structures", which are observed in the "lab" subspace as different elementary particles. "Quark structures", in the TFF, differ from "conventional" quarks (as previously understood in physics), because of the this particular structure, which determines their properties. Moreover, the TFF allows to define the "periodic law" for such quark structures. According to the theory, the quark structures don't form only leptonic NEPs, but they also form a certain analogue of quark structure (a "pseudo-quark structure") when they are in association with an  excited EVP of the proton-antiproton vacuum, allowing these leptons to manifest themselves in our "lab" subspace. Hence, the TFF managed for the first time to fully explain all the observed paradoxical features of quarks.

 

According to the TFF, non-excited EPVs are not observable in the "laboratory" subspace. Upon excitation of the EPVs, their "polarization" occurs (increase of the dipole moment between their constituting antiparticles), and they become a pair of close virtual antiparticles, capable of re-uniting. The process of sequential propagation of the excited states from one to EVP to another (caused by an alternating or pulsing field) is perceived as the propagation of light photons, and simultaneously determines the speed of light in vacuum. In this process of sequential transfer of excitation from one EVP to another ECHV, the photon loses some very small part of its energy. This could be an explanation for the effect of "red shift" observed in astronomy in the emission spectra of stars (usually, this "red shift" is  interpreted as a consequence of the star's  "divergence", in the process of expansion of the universe). [3]

 

The projections (imaging) of the oscillating FF dipole of the fundamenton in other layers of the fibered space represent different embodiments of rotational movements of the FF charges on circular paths, as well as the spiral geodesic path on the surface of a torus in a subspace having a pseudo-Riemann geometry. The dynamics of FF charges  movements on the toroidal surface is defined by the fields of two "current string" of the FF. One "current string", passing through the axis of the torus and leaving to the "infinity" (closing its looping at distances of the order of magnitude of the universe's radius), creates a magnetic field which, when in interaction with the magnetic field of another "current string" passing through the axis of the torus, gives a resulting field along a n-line on the torus surface. In this case, first, the inclined string revolves around the "axis" string, forming a "anisotropy cone ", characteristic of the NEP. The half of this angle at the apex of the cone is called in the TFF the " anisotropy angle " (Fig. 1) . For example, for an electron, the anisotropy angle is about 22°, while for a proton it is approx. 17,5°. These two major angles define the anisotropic properties of NEPs, EPVs and Elementary Particles. For unexcited EPVs, the anisotropy angle is equal to zero, but when there is a strong excitation, it becomes greater than zero.

 

[2] In 1975, in his publications,  I.L. Gerlovin predicted parameters of the tau-lepton, fully confirmed in 1982. In the early 80's, I.L. Gerlovin managed to theoretically predict the possibility of the existence and the parameters of several new elementary particles, discovered only later. But because of the conservatism of the editors of Soviet physics books, Gerlovin could not publish these results (as well as many others) of his theoretical research, and his priority rights on the corresponding discoveries has been lost.

 

[3] To date, observations of galaxies accumulated, showing an opposite "blue shift", which has generally been regarded as the confirmation of the nature of the Doppler's red and blue shifts in light spectrum, as well as a phenomenon linked to the expansion of the universe as a result of the "big bang". However, these explanations hide a number of inconsistencies with experimental observations (for example, anomalies observed in "blue shift" effects), and are convincingly contested by a number of scientists.

Fig.1. Schemes of an EVP and a NEP  in one of the fibered physical spaces:

           a/ EVP; b/ NEP

Force interaction between atoms in molecules and crystals have not a spherical, but an axial symmetry and, due to the rotational movement of the FF strings in the particles, these interactions vary in time with a very high frequency (about of 1018 Hz). The interaction forces between the particles change all the time, but because of the very high frequency of these changes, it does not lead to any observable effects. However, in some circumstances of direction of anisotropy, the oscillation frequency can be reduced, and this can lead to various observable effects.

 

Almost all the material structures "remember" that they are based on FF strings, scanning the surface of a cone. This memory may occur in macro objects when they form a cone or a pyramid, with an apex angle close to 35° or 44°. Such geometric objects may lead to resonance effects on the physical vacuum state, and on the matter (substances) of these objects. This may account for the unusual and different physical effects of this impact ("forms effect").

 

The TFF has created a "vacuum theory of gravity." According to it, the gravity is explained as a result of the screening, by elements of the structure of Elementary Particles, of the force lines ("strings") of the fundamental field. The "gravity shielding", available in each elementary particle, has not a spherical, but an axial symmetry. As a result, the effective value of the screening depends on the orientation of the EP. In the axis of the spin vector of the EP, the effective size of the screen is greater than in the orthogonal plane. Consequently, if the spins of EPs constituting an atom (mainly nucleons, since they determine the bulk of their mass) are aoriented in the one direction, then the gravitational force will be maximal in this direction, and minimal in the perpendicular plane.

 

When a very large number of EPs are concentrated in a small volume, then a displacement of some of the EPVs may occur and, therefore, this weakens the "vacuum tension" forces. If EP concentration in this finite volume becomes close to the concentration of EPVs (approx. 1039 cm-3) [4] , then gravitational interaction forces between them may be significantly reduced. This reduction of gravitational force translates into a defect of mass and an energy release. Therefore, the TFF predicts that it is possible to release "gravitational-vacuum energy" from the interior of stars and planets.

 

The anisotropic properties of electron (and of other EPs), as identified by the TFF, allowed to explain the mechanism of formation of "Cooper pairs", in the case of superconductivity. The TFF also managed to compute (calculate) the transition temperature to the superconducting state for different substances, with results coinciding with experimental data. 

Cooper pairs are formed when both electrons converge so that their external structure, with respect to the "laboratory" subspace, seize each other in the "trap" of their cones of anisotropy. The TFF predicted the theoretical limit of temperature for conventional type superconducting state (equal to  100 ° K), which was later confirmed by experimental data. According to the TFF, the appearance of superconducting state in the matter is linked to an excitation of EVPs. The "normal" superconductivity is determined by the excitation of the electron-positron vacuum (which, for example, can be reached thanks to the micro-porosity of high-temperature superconducting ceramics). But it is also possible to get a high temperature superconductivity (at temperatures of up to 105 K !...), involving the excited of the proton-antiproton vacuum.

 

One consequence of the development of the TFF was the creation of a "crystallic model" of the atomic nuclei. According to generally accepted notions, atomic nuclei consist of Z protons and N neutrons in a nucleus A. In contrast, according to the TFF, the nucleus contains A protons and N negative "metons", which neutralize part of the positive charge of the nucleus. 

The "meton" is a specific metastable state of an electron, which finds itself inside the nucleus. It doesn’t exist in a free form. The “meton” is formed by a certain interaction of the electron with a proton, leading to a "compression" of the electron. The Compton wavelength of the “meton” is equal to three Compton wavelengths of a proton; however, unlike the electron, the “meton” can be part of the nucleus. 

On its turn, the neutron, part of an atomic nucleus, can be regarded as a composite particle consisting of a proton and a “meton”. 

In a coordinate system where the nucleus structural elements can be considered as fixed, all the protons of the nucleus form a certain “protonic” spatial figure, while all the “metons” for a “metonic” spatial figure.  And both figures have mutual symmetries. Each of these figures is unstable individually, but together, they form stable nuclei. The degree of anisotropy of the field (ratio maximum / minimum) for the proton is 107, while for the “meton” it is 1027, i.e. 20 orders of magnitude greater. Therefore, the structure of a nucleus mainly depends on the number and arrangement of anisotropy cones of the “metons”. The minimum field is located on the axis of the anisotropy cone, or on the perpendicular plane passing through the meton’s center. 

All the protons, repulsing each other, tend to locate symmetrically, on the elements of symmetry of the “protonic” figure, where the interaction between protons are minimal, and at the intersection of anisotropy cones of “metons”, where their interaction with metons are maximal.

 

The crystallic model of the nuclei explains well the reasons for the instability of certain isotopes, leading to their radioactive decay, as well as some other physical effects.

 

Also, the TFP makes it possible to explain why the solids melt at well-defined temperatures: the theory found a theoretical computation method for calculating these melting temperatures. According to the TFF, there are specific objects in the crystallic structure of substances, the "cresons" (critical resonances), which are long-lived excited states of EPVs, located at the nodes of crystal symmetry (for instance, on the octahedral and tetrahedral interstices), due to the anisotropy of the force field of elementary particles. [5] 

When cresons are place in inter-atomic voids inside crystals, a maximum energy of links (bonds) is reached between cresons and the atoms of the crystallic lattice. Therefore, even in polycrystalline substances, cresons play a decisive role in the crystalline and inter-crystalline bonds, causing the mechanical properties of these substances. Melting occurs as a result of the cresons leaving the symmetry nodes inside the crystals, hence destroying the intra- and inter-crystalline bonds.

 

Another of the many practical aspects of the TFF is also the possibility to explain the mechanisms of the physical and chemical "activation" of clean water, as well as the chemical catalysis. Physico-chemical "activation" of substances represents a transition of the molecules into a specific active state with increased energy, contributing to the implementation of chemical reactions. 

For water, this state is similar to the dissociation of its molecules into ions H+ and OH- . However, in reality, there is no dissociation, but "quasi-molecules" water are formed : H+ / e- and OH- / e+ (quasi-acid and quasi-base), which have a high degree of stability (over several days, with a gradual decrease of their concentration in water). 

Such an effect occurs substantially under different types of water’s activation by electric current, in the presence of special separators between the electrodes, or without current due to effect on water of an electric field created by isolated electrodes ( Fig. 2 ).

 

[4]  A concentration of Elementary Particles of approx. 1039 cm-3 is probably a limit for physical objects (corresponding to neutron stars).

 

[5] In essence, "cresons" are short-lived elementary particles-resonances well known in physic, and which are “knocked out” from solids or liquids, or which are formed in vacuum during nuclear reactions.

Fig.2 Circuit for physical-chemical activation of water: currentless (left), and  with current (right)

According to the TFF, there is a certain constant level of excited state in the physical vacuum. Particles of the electron-positron vacuum are located at some distance from each other, with a dipole shoulder  of approx.  1,79 Å. Since this distance (shoulder) is greater than the distance between atoms of water molecules (0,96 Å between O and H, and 1,53 Å between H and H), this virtual (in the "lab" subspace) electron-positron pair will tend to break the water molecule into ions. 

In this case the strongest impact is on the link between O and H, so a water molecule torns apart into H ^ + ions and OH ^ ions H+ and OH- . But these ions immediately reconnect to the electron and positron of the EVP which contributed to their separation, becoming quasi-molecules H+ / e- and OH- / e+ (see fig. 3.)

These quasi-molecules are always present in some quantity in water; when mixed together, they do not exhibit any special properties. However, when an electric field is applied, these quasi-molecules move respectively to the cathode and the anode, to form stable fractions of activated water, in the form of quasi-acid and quasi-base.

Fig. 3 Diagram of dissociation of water under its physico-chemical activation.

Activation of the physico-chemical properties of substances may also take place under the influence of the magnetic fields. In this case, the field causes the electron’s Larmor precession, which (according to the TFF) has anisotropic properties along an axis, coinciding with the direction of its spin. This can affect the state of the molecular bonds inside matter, causing various effects of its physical and chemical activation.

 

In accordance with the theoretical predictions of TFF about the possibility of physical-chemical activation of substances, experiments were conducted on the activation of energy characteristics of fuel oils. In this case, the activation was achieved with an electric field. Studies were performed in accordance with existing standards for liquid fuel. 

The results of these experiments have shown the possibility of increasing the fuel’s calorific energy by 5-10% (see Fig. 4), as well as changes in other fuel characteristics (increase in the redox potential, flash temperature decreased by about 6 ° C, increase of volatility, decrease of surface tension by approx. 4.8 %, increase of viscosity increase by  approx. 2.6%). 

Differences were found between the samples taken at the anode and those taken at the cathode of the fuel activator. 

The experients also showed the need for an empirical selection of the optimal operation mode, as well as the inability to store the activated fuel for a long time. After three hours after the activation, the fuel’s characteristics returned to their normal values. However, in some cases, the “activation level” grew for some time still after the fuel activator was stopped.

Fig. 4 Growth of kerosene (TS-1) calorific potential (in kj / kg) after its physical-chemical activation (in abcisse: number of test). Lowest line - untreated kerosene. Upper line - activated kerosene.

As it can be easily seen, the “Theory of Fundamental Field” showcases the global consequences of its basic ideas and suggested mechanisms, with respect to all aspects of the physical world, and could be further used to explain several other, yet unexplained, physical and biophysical phenomena.

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