DARK MATTER & DARK ENERGY | PUBLICATIONS
Second article with Alexander Vasilkoviy, dedicated to cosmology and the cosmological constant, and published in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (this article being made available at the end of the PDF file).
Dark energy is an amazing nature phenomenon which was first discovered by observing far-distanced supernovas, halfway to the horizon of the world. This energy creates a "global anti-gravitation", which is reflected in an accelerated expansion of the universe as a whole. The theory proposed by the Moscow State University, explains the phenomenon of galaxies running away from each other in the near universe, which remained a puzzling fact since its discovery by Hubble in 1929. As it turned out, the dynamics of Hubble’s flows are driven by the anti-gravitation of dark energy, which forces the nearby galaxies to stream away from the Milky Way, and apart from each other, in an accelerated way.
In the observable universe, the vacuum dominates : by its energy density, it surpasses all the "usual" forms of matter. Vacuum creates an cosmic “anti-gravity”, which induces the present effect of accelerated cosmological expansion of the universe. But neither the galaxies, nor its own anti-gravity, nor even time itself are able to influence the space vacuum: it is absolutely motionless, immutable and eternal.
We live in four-dimensional space-time, which recently completed its cosmic evolution and presently, it almost reached its ideal, regular geometrically symmetric state, which will then last indefinitely.
Dark energy in the near Universe (I.V. Karachentsev, А.D. Chernin) (pdf, In Russian)
A publication in the magazine “Priroda” (“Nature”, in English), N° 11, 2008.
We are now at the beginning of a new, extraordinarily interesting phase of the development of sciences. It is remarkable that the science of microcosm (particle physics) and the science of the Universe (cosmology) are on the edge to become a unified science of the fundamental properties of the world around us.
With different approaches, they may answer the same questions: what is the matter which fills the today? what was its evolution in the past? what processes, occurring between elementary particles in the early Universe, led eventually to its current state?
The article discusses the evidence in favor of the existence of dark matter of the Universe, and the most popular candidates for these particles which form this this matter. We review and discuss several ongoing and planned experiments to search for dark matter particles. We discuss various experimental techniques, including how to register / detect direct interactions of dark matter particle with the matter of detectors, as well as products to their annihilation or decays.
About the properties of, and the search for the “axions”, the alleged particles of "dark matter".
The role of a chiral U(1) phase in the quark mass in QCD is analysed from first principles. In operator formulation, there is a parity symmetry and the phase can be removed by a change in the representation of the Dirac gamma matrices. Moreover, these properties are also realized in a Pauli-Villars regularized version of the theory. In the functional integral scenario, attempts to remove the chiral phase by a chiral transformation are thought to be obstructed by a nontrivial Jacobian arising from the fermion measure and the chiral phase may therefore seem to break parity. But if one starts from the regularized action with the chiral phase also present in the regulator mass term, the Jacobian for a combined chiral rotation of quarks and regulators is seen to be trivial and the phase can be removed by a combined chiral rotation. This amounts to a taming of the strong CP problem.
The universal “anti-gravitation” is a new physical phenomenon, found through astronomical observations of objects at distances of 5 - 8 billion light years. The anti-gravitation manifests itself as a cosmic repulsion, felt by distant galaxies, and this repulsion is stronger than the gravitational attraction of the galaxies between each other. For this reason, we observe an accelerated cosmological expansion.
This anti-gravitation is not created by galaxies, neither by any other bodies, and nor by a previously known form of energy / mass known as dark energy. The proportion of dark energy accounts for 70 – 80 % of all energy / mass of the observable Universe.
At the macroscopic level, the dark energy is described as a special kind of continuous medium, which fills the entire spac
e; this medium presents a positive density and a negative pressure. The physical nature of dark energy and its microscopic structure remain unknown : it is one of the most acute problems of fundamental science nowadays.
The article is devoted to the discussion of topics related to dark energy in the Universe. It is noted that despite the influence of dark energy, the generation of structure is still ongoing in the modern Universe, and will last for about 10 billion more years.
We comment some of the allegations formulated in the article of A.D. Chernin, “Dark energy and global anti-gravitation” (Russian ref.: UFN 178 267, 2008).
A critical analysis of the ideas set forth in the above mentioned articles "Dark energy and global anti-gravitation " (A.D. Chernin) and "Dark energy: myths and reality" (V.N.Lukach, V.А. Rubakov).
This article sets out ideas for an alternative understanding of this problem, on the basis of the author's modification of the GTR: the "Theory of global time".
Development of the author’s theory : "Dynamic theory of space in global time". Or, put shorter: the "Theory of global time" (TGT).
From a formal point of view, the GTR differs from TGT by an additional equation, which stipulated that the total energy density of all fields and of the space itself, is equal to zero. Therefore, in particular, in the TGT, where the Hamiltonian is different from zero, there is no problem of dark energy, and the quantum theory is naturally built on the basis of the non-zero Hamiltonian.
Meanwhile the bulk of the GTR solutions, found over the past century, are still valid (they come as the solution of the TGT when total energy is equal to zero).
Therefore, the TGT can be regarded as a consistent physical theory of space and time, which is a continuation / extension of the GTR.
The main result of the research was the discovery of dark energy in the near Universe, and evaluation of its local density, with the help of high-precision observation data. We have predicted and discovered (using the same data) local areas of outer space, in which Einstein’s anti-gravitation, created by dark energy, is stronger the the Newton gravitation created by dark matter and its baryons.
In the areas of anti-gravitation, we have discovered and studied a new type of cosmic motions : local flows of galactic run-up, accelerated by dark energy. The local density of dark energy measured in these areas happened to be equal (within the error margin) to its global density. This new independent empirical argument speaks in favor of Einstein’s anti-gravitation (in the same sense the Newtonian gravitation is considered as universal).
This result is incompatible with modified theories of gravity, which consider the dark energy as an effect possible on global distances, and only on such distances.
The structure and evolution of triple galaxy systems in the presence of the cosmic dark-energy background is studied in the framework of the three-body problem. Such dynamical models show that the anti-gravity created by dark energy makes a triple system less tightly bound, thereby facilitating its decay, with a subsequent transition to motion of the bodies away from each other in an accelerating regime with a linear Hubble-law dependence of the velocity on distance.
The article presents a model of cosmic medium, allowing to describe the physical nature and the microscopic structure of dark energy, possessing such properties as macroscopic negative pressure and positive density. It is stated that the cosmological constant Λ characterizes the elastic properties of the dark energy, and the “universal law of anti-gravitation” is a Hooke law of elasticity.
The evidence is based on the results of experiments made in superfluid ³He-B in a p-state, acting as an analogue of dark energy. In addition, to build the resonant curves of photoeffect in the near-Earth space medium, we used observations from space-based detectors, such as PAMELA, Fermi, as well as the detector AMS aboard the ISS.
Many recent highly precise and unmistakable observational facts achieved thanks to the tightly synchronized clocks of the GPS, provide consistent evidence that the gravitational fields are created by velocity fields of real space itself, a vigorous and very stable quantum fluid like spatial medium, the same space that rules the propagation of light and the inertial motion of matter.
It is shown that motion of this real space in the ordinary three dimensions round the Earth, round the Sun and round the galactic centers throughout the universe, according to velocity fields closely consistent with the local main astronomical motions, correctly induces the gravitational dynamics observed within these gravitational fields. In this spacedynamics the astronomical bodies all closely rest with respect to the real space, which forth-rightly leads to the observed null results of the Michelson light anisotropy experiments as well as to the absence of effects of the solar and galactic gravitational fields on the rate of clocks moving with Earth as recently discovered with the help of the GPS clocks.
This spacedynamics also eliminates the need of dark matter and dark energy to explain respectively the galactic gravitational dynamics and the accelerated expansion of the universe. It also straightforwardly accounts in terms of well known and genuine physical effects for all the other observed effects, caused by the gravitational fields on the velocity of light and on the rate of clocks, including all the new effects recently discovered with the help of the GPS. It moreover simulates the non-Euclidean metric underlying Einstein’s spacetime curvature.
Currently, in the world as seen by leading cosmologists, fundamental changes are taking place. They are associated with one of the most important "discoveries" made in 1998 : the detection of the "accelerating expansion of the universe", which almost immediately was recognized by the majority of cosmologists. Allegations of "accelerating the expansion of the universe" have given rise to a thriving industry of theoretical speculation. It forces to take a deeper look at these results, which gave rise to this "discovery", and not just to the advertised “explosive” conclusions.
It is necessary to take into account the FACT of isotropy of the density of matter in the observable universe. And it's not just spatial isotropy. By virtue of the limit of the speed of light, it is also an isotropy in time. From the existing interpretation of results, we inevitably conclude that at a distance of 10 - 15 billion light-years, i.e. 10 - 15 billion years ago, the density of matter and the local densities (observed by us now, in the near surroundings) are equal. A puzzling question arises : where is it, the expansion, the drop of density? From the observed global isotropy of matter, it follows that the concept of the “Big Bang” is empty.
However, we need a satisfactory answer to the FACT discovered by Hubble, the redshift.
The stable mutual spatial location of physical bodies in the pseudo-euclidian space obliges their lines in the space of events to be at equidistance. And the equidistance of these lines involves the emergence of a relative redshift in their spectra. It is a geometrical essence of matter. Physically, the redshift is a measure of a basic physical process of the Universe. It is the process of circulation of energy between different phases of the vacuum-similar medium.