Publications by K. Shoulders




Short Biography :


Kenneth Radford Shoulders (March 7, 1927 – June 7, 2013) was a experimental physicist.

He is known for various work related to the field of energy and has also been credited as an early pioneer of electron beam lithography, which has become a key mask-making technology for modern microelectronics.

He has additionally been attributed the title, ‘Father of Vacuum of Microelectronics’ and been known as a founder of microelectronic field emission devices.

1944: graduate of North Dallas High School, then worked at Maganavox Company, Texas Instruments Inc., and Collins Radio Company

1955 - 1958 : Research Staff Member at the MIT

1958 : Senior Research Engineer by the Stanford Research Institute (SRI) in Menlo, CA.

1968: Ken incepted Vertitek Inc., with the intention of building experimental aircraft ; during 20 years, he designed several aircraft and aircraft components.

K. Shoulders has conducted extensive research on the charge clusters (EV or EVO) phenomena between the 1980s and 2010s. He was awarded a number of patents over the course of his career.

Read also the very good biographical article published in Autumn 2016 in the Journal “Distilllations”  (pdf)

Ken R. Shoulders


Jupiter Technology, Austin TX, 1987  (pdf)

This is the main monography of K. Shoulders, where he describes how he registered the discovery of charge clusters (which he called « Electrum Validum »), their physical properties, the devices and numerous experimental equipment he developed in order to measure the EV’s parameters : quantity of charges in one cluster, lifetime, geometrical form and sizes of craters when they hit titan foils, etc..

Ken and Steve Shoulders


Journal of New Energy, Vol. 1. No. 3, 1996, pp. 111-121 (pdf)

Deuterium loaded palladium foils, produced by both electrolytic and ultrasonic processing, have been micro-analyzed for nuclear reactions. The characteristic strike marks of charge clusters, known as EVs, have been found to occur concurrently with nuclear reactions in micrometer-sized areas. In the electrolytic case, the reaction is attributed to charge clusters generated from mechanical energy, first stored and then suddenly released, from a brittle metal lattice through the mechanism of fracto-emission of electrons. For the acoustic case, EVs are generated by charge separation in a collapsing bubble. When areas previously free of low energy nuclear reactions are bombarded in either vacuum or air by externally generated charge clusters, nuclear reactions are produced at the bombardment site. Charge clusters are considered to function as a collective accelerator capable of injecting a large group of nuclei into a target with sufficient energy density to promote the nuclear cluster reactions observed.

Ken and Steve Shoulders


Bodega, CA, 1999. P.12. (pdf)

New energy transformations have been found using highly organized, micron-sized clusters of electrons, or EVs, having soliton behavior, with electron populations on the order of Avogadro’s number. When interacted with solid material, these charge clusters perform a low-energy phase transformation type of atomic disruption that liquefies the lattice and propels the material to a high velocity without apparent signs of conventional heating. Evidence will be introduced for the underlying energy production process stemming from the equivalence of an electron-annihilation energy release based on the manipulation of fractional electronic charge. Evidence will also be shown of a low energy nuclear reaction that has produced nuclear transmutations by using a nuclear cluster reaction process.

Ken Shoulders


Bodega, CA, 2000. P.18. (pdf)

Highly organized, micron-sized clusters of electrons, or EVs, having soliton behavior, with electron populations on the order of Avogadro's number are represented as the necessary function for modifying the permittivity of space in a downward direction. The state of existence for this entity reduces its expressed charge by many orders of magnitude below that calculated for the same number and volume of uncontained electrons. The EV is shown to exist in at least two distinct modes of charge masking, with one of them, the black EV, being virtually undetectable using sensitive methods.

A form of inertial propulsion will be discussed that arises from the inertial rectification affects available by modulating the state of the EV, thereby the permittivity of space and concomitant inertia or effective mass of material moving through space. It will be shown that the same type of permittivity change through EV modulation can achieve a unidirectional current flow and that this gives rise to methods for generating monopole affects and vector potentials useful for communication outside the usual current loop generating them.

Complex organisms are discussed composed entirely of EV structures that are self-formed at electronic rates without using either mechanical or chemical methods. Some speculations will be made on the benefits of operating such complex entities in regions of greatly reduced permittivity.

A condensed matter dissolution technique will be shown that is capable of cold dissociation of refractory material into a low viscosity fluid. The root process for energy conversion methods resembling “cold fusion” are reviewed and shown to likely spring from the same EV technology capable of producing a modified space permittivity. Consideration will be given to experimental methods for testing affects on time at greatly reduced levels of permittivity.

Ken Shoulders


Bodega, California, 2000. p.35. (pdf)

A sample of chosen material, such as, aluminum oxide, is placed in a miniature reactor vessel that can be periodically accessed by an ion trap type of mass spectrometer. The material is reacted with EVs generated by a spark process allowing long, EV boring type runs through the material. At regular intervals of time, the material is sampled by the mass spectrometer, while the reaction is continued for several minutes : the mass spectrum registers isotope shifts.

Ken, Shoulders, Dr. Jack Safratti


Bodega, CA, 2004. P.8. (pdf)

A connection is shown between electron clusters, or EVs, and energy conversion processes yielding thermal energy in excess of the input energy used to form the electron cluster. This energy conversion process is traced to all known forms of cold fusion claims for over-unity or excess energy production. A theory of like charge binding as well as highly effective nuclear acceleration using the charge cluster is presented based on local gravity coupling arising from manipulation of the Exotic Vacuum.

Ken Shoulders

WHAT'S AN EVO ? (pdf)

An EVO (exotic vacuum object) is just another name in a long line of names for a new electronic effect. In the past, it has been called an EV (Electromagnetic Vortex or Electrum Validum for strong electron), charge cluster (this could be just a piece of dirt with no net charge) and CCT for charge cluster technology. Whatever it is called, the effect can best be characterized by how it is measured using instruments capable of interpenetration in terms of somewhat similar phenomenon. We will assemble a series of observations characterizing the observable entity properties that are most pertinent to new energy and propulsion uses. This writing is an attempt to analyze the actions and basic characteristics of the entity while being as free as possible of preconceived notions about its structure.

Ken Shoulders


There is an attractive force found between closely spaced, free electrons instead of the universally touted repulsion force. This attractive force is effective only at dimensions in the order of atomic spacing, being in the range of 10-10 meters, leaving older repulsion laws intact for large spacing. When this force binds two or more electrons, their expressed field at a distance is reduced. This is a newfound property of this otherwise well-known particle.

Ken Shoulders


Electron clusters, or EVOs, are shown to be ideal candidates for electrical power generation using easily available methods for manipulation of electronic charge. The work to be done is described as manipulation of the exotic vacuum in a way that takes advantage of the ability to move the EVO against an electrical load using only a fraction of the input power usually used, resulting in an energy gain. However, the high intensity of the process and ease of applying it to mischievous ends portend future difficulties with its use.

Ken Shouders

EVO LIVE CYCLE (2006) (pdf)

An EVO, or Exotic Vacuum Object, begins its life by accreting electrons extracted from gaseous or solid atoms. It then self-transforms into a coherent structure behaving as an entity functioning at greatly reduced expressed charge compared to the number of electrons either put into it or extracted from it at this stage in its life. This note will discuss EVO behavior.

Ken Shoulders


Very interesting and straight-forward answers by K. Shoulders about natural questions which may be asked about the EVOs.

Ken R. Shoulders


(Ed. F.L. Alt, Advances in Computers, 1961, Том 2, Стр. 135)

The aim of the chapter is to develop the proper apparatus and techniques for electron-beam-activated micromachining and to apply these tools in the fabrication of integrated groups of electronic components. The chapter discusses electronic components based upon the quantum mechanical tunneling of electrons from a metal into a high vacuum. With this technique, only stable metals and dielectrics arc employed in several geometries to produce diodes, triodes, and tetrodes. The chapter discusses secondary electron emission effects having high stability, high current density, negligible time delay, and temperature insensitivity for application to transmission-type electron multipliers and for coupling between tunnel effect components. Low-noise amplifiers are discussed in which a field emission cathode produces a virtual, space-charge-limited cathode for a negative grid tube. Atomic beam etching methods are discussed for application to low temperature etching of materials, such as the room temperature etching of silicon by atomic hydrogen. The construction techniques for producing accurate lens elements are reviewed and some of the tests performed on the elements are described.